She began research on glacier retreat around the North Patagonian Ice field in and has continued working there to the present using both lichenometry and dendrogeomorphology to date rock surfaces exposed since the Little Ice Age. Currently her interest has expanded to investigate the use of dendrogeomorphology as a tool for analyzing landscape processes and rates of change in temperate and arid environments. Further to this purpose, in she set up the Oxford Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology and in ran the “20th International Dendroecological Field week” in North Devon in collaboration with the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Zurich, the originators of this annual event. A privately-owned gallery forest beside the Mandrare River in the dry south-east, home to iconic ring-tailed lemurs, is threatened by degradation due to an invasive vine and local climatic effects linked to location and tree age. Vanessa’s analysis shows that the forest can be divided into 3 zones of degeneration as defined by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Recommendations as to treatment of the degenerated zones follow the Kew guidelines. Chilean Patagonia, North Patagonian Ice field:
They are now exactly two years into their second attempt to do just this. The calves drank all the milk and they received penalties for not providing enough milk to their buyer. After six months they had to stop and began the slow separation process to minimise trauma. They started by separating the cows and calves overnight. There were no signs of stress and miraculously, the calves started taking hay and water, which meant the Finlays started to get milk.
The Weather Channel and provide a national and local weather forecast for cities, as well as weather radar, report and hurricane coverage.
Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England. This paper describes a novel archaeological resource—preserved epiphytes on the timber structure of vernacular buildings—used, to our knowledge, for the first time to quantify a loss of biodiversity between pre-industrial and post-industrial landscapes. By matching the confirmed occurrence of epiphyte species for the pre-industrial period, with a statistical likelihood for their absence in the present-day landscape post- , we robustly identified species that have been extirpated across three contrasting regions in southern England.
First, the scale of biodiversity loss observed—up to 80 per cent of epiphytes—severely challenges biodiversity targets and environmental baselines that have been developed using reference points in the post-industrial period. Second, we examined sensitivity in the present-day distribution of extirpated species, explained by three environmental drivers: Results point to an interacting effect between the pollution regime sulphur dioxide and changed woodland structure, leading to distinctive regional signatures in biodiversity loss.
Constraining the role of early land plants in Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling. We conclude that simple thalloid liverworts and their mycorrhizal symbionts increased basalt weathering rates at the grain-scale compared with plant-free controls through highly localized acidification figures 1 and 2 , to an extent similar to lichens figure 3. After accounting for the depth of plant-fungal-substrate interactions, however, our experimental results for liverwort-driven weathering scale-up to yield weathering fluxes comparable with those reported from field studies of basaltic catchments colonized by lichens and bryophytes only figure 3.
Consequently, we suggest early land floras anchored into thin soils with shallow rhizoids and mycorrhizal partners probably exerted rather small effects on land-to-ocean fluxes of P and Ca—Mg and their associated role in atmospheric CO2 drawdown. Instead, the later evolutionary rise of rooted vascular plants and mycorrhizal fungi led to an increase in the capacity for biological interaction with rocks and minerals, which in turn caused an increase in the production of pedogenic clays.
A pivotal point in this evolutionary progression was the rise in the productivity and biomass of Devonian forested ecosystems in upland regions.
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It brims with adventure yet the experience is often defined by serenity. Endlessly incomprehensible landscapes are matched by a friendly familiarity at every destination. Unique geological features test definitions of natural beauty, yet the journey through Middle Earth is a smooth one.
The best Greek islands, whether you’re looking for sandy beaches, unspoiled island life or history and culture “Or base yourself on the pine-forested Vasilikos peninsula in the south-east.
Questions Tue Jun 26 Cabot Trail The Cabot Trail is the jewel of Atlantic Canada’s tourism industry, especially if you’re a motorcycle rider. We were camped the night before just outside of Cape Breton island and only had a couple of hundred kms to reach the beginning of the Cabot Trail in St Anns, after circumnavigating the south-east section of the island.
The decision was to ride the coastal road of the Trail counter-clockwise so we would experience the scenery of the coast to our right. Back to group riding! We left most of the planning and ride leading to Khanh, on his custom-painted VFR , as he led us into the heart of Cape Breton. It was a really big change in rhythm as we rode with 6 other riders and at times we split up into two groups of four to keep things manageable, but the light traffic on the island meant stayed together as a group for the most part.
The dynamics of group riding also changed with this many riders, as we had to make changes for different paces, following styles, endurance and also personalities. Fortunately, we had all ridden with each other before and it was a quick adjustment to find a group order and pace that we were all familiar with. Neda and I met these guys at a group ride last year and we found it very enjoyable and comfortable to hang out and ride with them, and we were really looking forward to spending 10 days in the Maritimes with them.
Like dating, finding good riding partners is sometimes hard to do, but over the years we’ve managed to find some really cool people that we love touring and doing day rides with. Damn you, Toronto riders. Brought the rain with you
GEOL Island Chain
Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
The vision of the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project (CCSP) has been the establishment of the Climate Change Lead Schools, an organic and pioneering network of schools who build climate Title: Climate Change & Sustainability .
GEOL – Lecture Notes Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain The Hawaiian Island chain is one of the largest and most striking features on the surface of our planet, yet it is not related to any of the major types of plate boundaries. Since most volcanoes on the Earth’s surface are related to plate boundaries, the Hawaiian Islands represent a profound enigma and a reason for geologists to spend copius amounts of time in Hawaii. The Hawaiian Island chain consists not only of the main Hawaiian islands and adjacent French Frigate shoals, but are also connected to the Emperor Seamounts, a large, linear submarine range that runs northward to the Aleutian subduction zone where it disappears.
This extensive line of volcanoes represents anomalous lava production and by inference a zone of excess heat in the underlying mantle. In the early ‘s the term “hotspot” was coined for regions like Hawaii where anomalous heat could be recognized, though the origin of such regions still remains quite puzzling. In this lecture we’ll explore the structure of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain and in the next we’ll talk about possible theories of how hotspots evolve.
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Results of the TreeMix analysis. A The maximum-likelihood tree of nine populations included in the analysis. B Residual fit from the tree. Residuals above zero indicate pairs of populations that are candidates for admixture events.
The vision of the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project (CCSP) has been the establishment of the Climate Change Lead Schools, an organic and pioneering network of schools who build climate change understanding and positive action from the : Climate Change & Sustainability .
Cities[ edit ] Port Moresby — the capital city with its interesting Zoological gardens, the Parliament building, the museum, and general Melanesian atmosphere. Alotau — laid-back capital of Milne Bay province and gateway to some fascinating but remote islands. Goroka — an attractive highland town with pleasant climate and the annual Goroka Show. Centre of the country’s coffee industry. Lae — the country’s second city, main commercial centre and gateway to the Highlands.
Hagen — the ‘wild-west’ frontier town in the Highlands, which will introduce you to the cool, crisp Highlands weather and Highlands culture. Madang — a beautiful city with breathtaking flights of bats in the evening it is illegal to hurt them , and even more breathtaking diving. Rabaul — the city at the foot of an active volcano which was evacuated and severely damaged by a major eruption in Vanimo — the border town if you want to make you way to or from the province of Papua in neighbouring Indonesia.
Wewak — the gateway to the Sepik river, where you can experience Sepik culture, the river itself, and the elaborate carvings typical of the region. Louisiade Archipelago — beautiful island group well off-the-beaten-path; world-class diving and yachting heaven.
Usage Factbook photos – obtained from a variety of sources – are in the public domain and are copyright free. It is also one of three volcanic peaks in Mexico – together with Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl – that retain summit glaciers. The last recorded eruption took place in ; while the volcano is considered dormant at present, geologists continue to investigate the potential hazards associated with a renewal of activity.
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All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia 0. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.
Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. Abundance of the trait and frequency of coding alleles depends on geographic region.
Such specific distribution of the trait does not imply the place of its origin and does not facilitate the identification of possible selection conditions and agents. Thus, one can assume that the origin of the allele predates the Neolithization process and cattle domestication in Neolithic Europe [ 10 ], which means that, much later, milk could have played a role in its selection and spreading, as many authors suggest [ 2 , 11 , 12 ].
So far, however, no traces of the allele have been found in Neolithic skeletal material from two main routes, the Danubian and the Mediterranean one, along which first farmers were spreading the new technology [ 13 — 15 ].